The climate of the region ranges from subtropical in the southwestern lowlands to alpine throughout the high mountain areas. Precipitation is variable; it is heavier in areas that can be reached by the monsoonal winds west and south of the great ranges and sparse to the north and east where continental conditions prevail. The sparsely inhabited Ladakh region and beyond is home to Tibetan peoples who practice Buddhism and speak Balti and Ladakhi. According to legend , an ascetic named Kashyapa reclaimed the land now comprising Kashmir from a vast lake.
That land came to be known as Kashyapamar and, later, Kashmir. Buddhism was introduced by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century bce , and from the 9th to the 12th century ce the region appears to have achieved considerable prominence as a centre of Hindu culture. A succession of Hindu dynasties ruled Kashmir until , when it came under Muslim rule. The Muslim period lasted nearly five centuries, ending when Kashmir was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab in and then to the Dogra kingdom of Jammu in The state thus formed part of a complex political buffer zone interposed by the British between their Indian empire and the empires of Russia and China to the north.
For Gulab Singh, confirmation of title to these mountain territories marked the culmination of almost a quarter century of campaigning and diplomatic negotiation among the petty hill kingdoms along the northern borderlands of the Sikh empire of the Punjab. Some attempts were made in the 19th century to define the boundaries of the territory, but precise definition was in many cases defeated by the nature of the country and by the existence of huge tracts lacking permanent human settlement.
There were similar doubts about the alignment of the frontier where this northern zone skirted the region known as Aksai Chin , to the east, and joined the better-known and more precisely delineated boundary with Tibet, which had served for centuries as the eastern border of the Ladakh region. The pattern of boundaries in the northwest became clearer in the last decade of the 19th century, when Britain, in negotiations with Afghanistan and Russia, delimited boundaries in the Pamirs region.
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In a recent study, the U. Defence Intelligence Agency estimated that more than twelve million Indians and Pakistanis could be killed — and another seven million injured — in a nuclear war. Vajpayee and Sharif appeared to be on the verge of an agreement on Kashmir. Kargil war during May to July undermined the Indo-Pak relations. Mujahideen infiltrated six miles into the India-held Kargil region of North Kashmir.
Kargil war was a miscalculation and misadventure by Pakistan army; it defamed and isolated Pakistan in international community.
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It water downs aspiration of Lahore Declarations and also pointed out a lack of coordination between Pakistan army and government. At last it enhanced risk of war in future and also proved that nuclear deterrence. Musharaf Government was able internationalize the conflict by showing full commitments to resolve it. Government also prosed the third party mediation which emphatically resisted by India. Musharaf Government claimed no support to Mujahadeens campus which may facilitate cross-border terrorism. Since the 13 December terrorist attack on the Indian parliament, Pakistan has strongly condemned all acts of terror, including those committed in the name of Kashmir.
President Musharraf has also pledged to end all cross-border infiltration. Indeed, Pakistan rejects and condemns terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. Pakistan will not allow its territory to be used for terrorist activity anywhere in the world.
No organization will be allowed to indulge in terrorism in the name of Kashmir. Failure of Agreements and Rejection of Mediation: There have been numerous unsuccessful agreements between India and Pakistan. Both countries agreed to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed between them. Both India and Pakistan failed to adhere the agreements. However, the two parties have continued to shift the blame on each other.
For Pakistan it was a clear breach of the Simla agreements. The agreement failed to include the Siachen glacier area when drawing up the LoC. It also does not restricts both countries for seeking the bilateral resolution only. Para 1 ii providing for settlement of differences by peaceful means. Articles 34 and 35 of the UN Charter specifically empower the Security Council to investigate any dispute independently or at the request of a member State.
These provisions cannot be made subservient to any bilateral agreement.
According to Article of UN Charter, member States obligations under the Charter primacy over obligations under a bilateral agreement. Both bilateral negotiation and mediation have been proven almost completely unsuccessful in creating lasting joint understandings between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.
Why India rejects the role of international organizations like UN or any other third party?
- Kashmir Conflict in Milieu of International Law.
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In bilateral negotiation India considers itself in a dominant position in the region, and has perhaps a stronger leverage in bargaining position as it was after war. Another consideration for bilateral negotiations is avoiding pressure to concede to an unfavorable settlement for Indian. Right of self-determination by Kashmiree people is equally unpalatable for Indian Government.
In bilateral agreement India has able to convert cease fire line into the LOC as the de facto line of control and looks interested maintaining this status quo. Finally, India fears that international pressure may be applied to force India into an unfavorable settlement.
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Self-Determination: Under the principle of self-determination it is the right of every nation to establish its own territorial sovereignty. Article 1 2 of the Charter of the United Nations states that the purposes of the UN is to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace.
Almost all human rights treaties recognize the doctrine of self-determination.
The Common article 1, paragraph 1 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Social and Economic and Cultural Rights provides that all people have the rights of self-determination, by virtue of that right they freely determine their political states and freely determine their economic, social and cultural development. Under these legal instruments the people of Kashmir have the ability to determine their own political future.
They are endowed with reasons and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Atrocities such as shootings into unarmed crowds of demonstrators and firing on funeral processions occur regularly, despite the prohibiting of arbitrary deprivation of life under any circumstances under International human rights law. Thus, even during times of emergency, no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
Articles 4 and 7 of the ICCPR explicitly ban torture, even in times of national emergency or when the security of the country is threatened.
There are various models of the solution to Kashmir issue. We may think of the model applied to Cyprus by Turkey and Greece. There is yet another option to make Kashmir an arms free trading zone. It can even be freed and made an independent republic but the wishes of the people of Kashmir must bear due weightage.
Our world is our home and ours is the only planet in the universe where life exists. We must learn to live happily with our neighbours; however, it is possible only if we settle all our disputes.http://4840.ru/components/wie/tace-spionage-app.php
History and Background of the Kashmir Conflict
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