This essay discusses substance and drug abuse and crime and treatment programs.
Data are included. Bibliography lists 4 sources. This 5 page paper discusses the complexities of defining 'drug abuse' and then proceeds to explain how labeling theory is used as an explanation for drug abuse.
Essay on drugs and alcohol abuse
Furthermore, this paper highlights the ways in which labeling theory can be employed as a strategy to reduce drug abuse in our society. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
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From the applied behavior analysis literature, behavioral psychology , and from randomized clinical trials , several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioral marital therapy , motivational Interviewing , community reinforcement approach , exposure therapy , contingency management   They help suppress cravings and mental anxiety, improve focus on treatment and new learning behavioral skills, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse.
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In children and adolescents, cognitive behavioral therapy CBT  and family therapy  currently has the most research evidence for the treatment of substance abuse problems. Well-established studies also include ecological family-based treatment and group CBT.
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Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous are one of the most widely known self-help organizations in which members support each other not to use alcohol. A number of medications have been approved for the treatment of substance abuse. Several other medications, often ones originally used in other contexts, have also been shown to be effective including bupropion and modafinil. Methadone and buprenorphine are sometimes used to treat opiate addiction.
Antipsychotic medications have not been found to be useful. It is common for individuals with drugs use disorder to have other psychological problems. Individuals who have a comorbid psychological disorder often have a poor prognosis if either disorder is untreated. However, since the s, there has been a push towards integrating mental health and addiction treatment.
In this method, neither condition is considered primary and both are treated simultaneously by the same provider. The initiation of drug use including alcohol is most likely to occur during adolescence, and some experimentation with substances by older adolescents is common. For example, results from Monitoring the Future survey, a nationwide study on rates of substance use in the United States, show that Studies have shown that the large majority of adolescents will phase out of drug use before it becomes problematic. More than 70, Americans died from drug overdoses in Drug use is higher in countries with high economic inequality.
Total yearly U. US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. In , the American Psychiatric Association created a definition that used legality, social acceptability, and cultural familiarity as qualifying factors:. In , the American Medical Association 's Committee on Alcoholism and Addiction defined abuse of stimulants amphetamines, primarily in terms of 'medical supervision':. It is an eclectic concept having only one uniform connotation: societal disapproval. The Commission believes that the term drug abuse must be deleted from official pronouncements and public policy dialogue.objectifcoaching.com/components/ashtabula/wannonce-rencontre-adulte-poitou-charentes.php
Addiction and Negative Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Body & Brain
The term has no functional utility and has become no more than an arbitrary codeword for that drug use which is presently considered wrong. The first edition of the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in grouped alcohol and other drug abuse under Sociopathic Personality Disturbances, which were thought to be symptoms of deeper psychological disorders or moral weakness.
The definition of dependence emphasised tolerance to drugs, and withdrawal from them as key components to diagnosis, whereas abuse was defined as "problematic use with social or occupational impairment" but without withdrawal or tolerance. In , the DSM-III R category "psychoactive substance abuse," which includes former concepts of drug abuse is defined as "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by It was the first definition to give equal weight to behavioural and physiological factors in diagnosis.
By , the DSM-IV defines substance dependence as "a syndrome involving compulsive use, with or without tolerance and withdrawal"; whereas substance abuse is "problematic use without compulsive use, significant tolerance, or withdrawal. By , The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM issued by the American Psychiatric Association , the DSM-IV-TR, defines substance dependence as "when an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed.
In the DSM-IV era, abuse was seen as an early form or less hazardous form of the disease characterized with the dependence criteria. However, the APA's 'dependence' term, as noted above, does not mean that physiologic dependence is present but rather means that a disease state is present, one that most would likely refer to as an addicted state.
Many involved recognize that the terminology has often led to confusion, both within the medical community and with the general public. The American Psychiatric Association requested input as to how the terminology of this illness should be altered as it moves forward with DSM-5 discussion. While substance abuse and dependence were either present or not, substance use disorder has three levels of severity: mild, moderate and severe. Most governments have designed legislation to criminalize certain types of drug use. These drugs are often called "illegal drugs" but generally what is illegal is their unlicensed production, distribution, and possession.
These drugs are also called "controlled substances". Even for simple possession, legal punishment can be quite severe including the death penalty in some countries.
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Laws vary across countries, and even within them, and have fluctuated widely throughout history. Attempts by government-sponsored drug control policy to interdict drug supply and eliminate drug abuse have been largely unsuccessful. In spite of the huge efforts by the U. Despite drug legislation or perhaps because of it , large, organized criminal drug cartels operate worldwide.
Advocates of decriminalization argue that drug prohibition makes drug dealing a lucrative business, leading to much of the associated criminal activity. Policymakers try to understand the relative costs of drug-related interventions. An appropriate drug policy relies on the assessment of drug-related public expenditure based on a classification system where costs are properly identified.
Labelled drug-related expenditures are defined as the direct planned spending that reflects the voluntary engagement of the state in the field of illicit drugs. Direct public expenditures explicitly labeled as drug-related can be easily traced back by exhaustively reviewing official accountancy documents such as national budgets and year-end reports.
Unlabelled expenditure refers to unplanned spending and is estimated through modeling techniques, based on a top-down budgetary procedure. For example, to estimate the prison drug-related expenditures in a given country, two elements would be necessary: the overall prison expenditures in the country for a given period, and the attributable proportion of inmates due to drug-related issues.
The product of the two will give a rough estimate that can be compared across different countries. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to , the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union EU Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labeled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level.